Long-Term Side Effects of Invisalign

Long-Term Side Effects of Invisalign
We may earn a commission if you purchase something using one of our links. Advertising Disclosure.

Invisalign has gained significant popularity as an orthodontic treatment to straighten teeth, bridge gaps, and correct crowding and mild bite issues. This treatment uses clear aligners that are custom-made for each patient, offering a more aesthetically pleasing option as compared to traditional metal braces. While Invisalign is known for its convenience and comfort, it’s essential to understand its long-term effects. But before we get into the long-term side effects of Invisalign, let’s check out how Invisalign works.

How Invisalign Works

Invisalign uses a series of clear, removable plastic aligners to gradually shift teeth into place over time. The process begins with a dentist or orthodontist taking x-rays, photos, and impressions of your teeth. These are used to create a precise 3D image of your mouth and map out the movements of your teeth. Custom aligners are then produced using advanced 3D printing technology.

Each set of aligners is worn for 1-2 weeks before being switched out for the next set in the series. The aligners apply controlled forces to teeth to reposition them little by little. As you replace each aligner with the next one, your teeth will move and straighten. Treatment time with Invisalign ranges from 6 months to 2 years depending on the complexity of the case. Patients are advised to wear aligners 20-22 hours per day for the best results.

Common Immediate Side Effects

Some minor side effects may occur when first starting Invisalign aligner treatment. This paragraph will cover the most common short-term effects within the initial adjustment period.

Temporary Discomfort or Pressure During Initial Usage

In the beginning, Invisalign users might experience temporary discomfort or pressure. This is because the aligners exert gradual force on the teeth to move them into the desired position. Users typically get accustomed to this feeling within a few days as their teeth begin to shift.

Worth Knowing

A survey in the Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics reports that 83% of patients adapted to their aligners within the first week. 

Slight Speech Changes or Lisping

Some patients might notice slight changes in their speech or develop a temporary lisp when they first start using Invisalign. These changes usually resolve as the wearer gets used to the aligners and learns to speak with them in place. Practicing speaking while wearing the aligners can help expedite this process.

Worth Knowing

A survey in the Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics reports that 46% of the patients experienced no speech impairment. 

Dry Mouth or Increased Salivation

Invisalign wearers may experience dry mouth or increased salivation due to the presence of the aligners in their mouth. Maintaining proper hydration and using oral moisturizers can help alleviate dry mouth symptoms. On the other hand, increased salivation typically subsides as users become more accustomed to their aligners.

Long-Term Side Effects of Invisalign

While most side effects of Invisalign aligners occur immediately, some can develop over the long course of treatment. This paragraph discusses potential long-term effects that patients should be aware of when considering Invisalign use.

Long-Term Effect on Oral Health

Gum Health

Wearing Invisalign aligners for an extended period can occasionally have effects on the gums. Over time, if not properly maintained, aligners can become a breeding ground for bacteria. These bacteria can lead to gum infections, causing redness, swelling, and bleeding. Moreover, if aligners are not well-fitted, they might irritate or cause pressure on the gums, leading to gum recession. It’s also possible for food particles to get trapped between the aligner and the gums, further increasing the risk of gum problems.

See also: Invisalign – We Answer The Most Frequently Asked Questions

Oral Hygiene Challenges

Invisalign, though innovative in teeth straightening, presents its own set of oral hygiene challenges when worn over the long term. Aligners cover the teeth for the majority of the day, restricting the mouth’s natural cleaning mechanisms like saliva flow. This can create an environment conducive to bacteria growth and plaque accumulation. Additionally, if users neglect proper cleaning of the aligners, they can introduce even more bacteria into the mouth upon re-insertion. Food remnants trapped between the teeth and aligners can also exacerbate decay if not cleaned thoroughly.

Tooth Sensitivity

Wearing Invisalign for an extended period can lead to tooth sensitivity. As the aligners exert consistent pressure on the teeth to move them into their desired positions, the process can occasionally irritate the nerves within the teeth. This pressure, coupled with the changes in tooth position, can temporarily make teeth more responsive to temperature changes from foods or beverages. Moreover, if patients don’t maintain optimal oral hygiene, the risk of developing cavities increases, which can further contribute to sensitivity.

Impact on Aesthetics

Tooth Discoloration

Wearing Invisalign can sometimes lead to tooth discoloration if patients aren’t diligent with their oral hygiene. The transparent aligners cover the teeth entirely, and any trapped food or residue can cause staining or plaque buildup. Consuming colored beverages like coffee, tea, or red wine with the aligners can stain the teeth. If plaque accumulates for extended periods, it can give the teeth a yellowish appearance. To prevent discoloration, regular cleaning of both the aligners and teeth is recommended, and it’s important to avoid drinking colored beverages when the trays are in place.

See also: Invisalign Retainers for Life: A Lifetime Investment for Your Smile

Shape Alteration

Some patients using Invisalign have observed unintended changes in the shape or positioning of their teeth. The continuous pressure exerted by the aligners can occasionally lead to alterations, especially when combined with habits like grinding. These cases are relatively rare, but they highlight the need for regular orthodontist visits to ensure the teeth are moving correctly without unwanted side effects.

Effects on Jaw and Bite Alignment

In some cases, patients may experience discomfort around the jaw and mouth area, along with toothache, and dry mouth. Since Invisalign treatment is tailored to individual cases, these side effects may not be consistent across all patients.

Tooth Movement and Stability

One of the main concerns with the long-term use of Invisalign is its impact on tooth movement and stability after treatment is complete. While the aligners are intended to gradually shift teeth into the proper position, this constant movement can loosen teeth over time. As a result, teeth may continue to shift slightly even after aligners are no longer worn. This could lead to minor relapse or crowding as teeth settle into new positions. Orthodontists recommend wearing retainers after Invisalign treatment to help stabilize teeth in their corrected alignment.

Maintaining Oral Health with Invisalign

Maintaining oral health during Invisalign treatment is important to prevent potential long-term side effects. While these clear aligners discreetly straighten teeth, they can also trap food particles and bacteria if not cared for properly. It’s necessary to regularly clean both your aligners and teeth, following your dentist’s instructions diligently. Neglecting oral hygiene during Invisalign can result in problems like tooth decay and gum disease, potentially compromising the treatment’s benefits. By being vigilant about oral care, you’ll not only achieve a beautifully aligned smile but also safeguard your overall dental health.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can Invisalign cause gum damage?

Invisalign treatment generally does not cause gum damage. However, gum irritation may occur if the aligners are not properly trimmed or have rough edges. It is essential to maintain proper oral hygiene during treatment to avoid any gum issues.

Are there any long-term negative effects of Invisalign?

Invisalign treatment is considered safe, with very few reported long-term negative effects. However, like any orthodontic treatment, potential risks may include tooth movement relapse and minor gum irritation. Regular dental checkups and following your orthodontist’s instructions can help minimize these risks.

Is the plastic used in Invisalign toxic?

Invisalign aligners are made from medical-grade, thermoplastic polymers that are specifically designed to be biocompatible and safe for use in the mouth. The material is BPA-free, BPS-free, latex-free, and gluten-free. Before receiving market approval, these aligners underwent extensive testing to ensure they do not release harmful substances.

What are the symptoms of an allergy to Invisalign?

Allergies to Invisalign aligners are extremely rare but may include redness, itching, or swelling of the oral tissues. Some patients may experience a burning sensation in their mouth or a metallic taste. If any of these symptoms occur, stop using the aligners and consult your orthodontist for alternative treatment options.

Can Invisalign treatment lead to teeth fatigue?

Yes, Invisalign treatment can sometimes lead to a sensation described as “teeth fatigue” or mild discomfort. As the clear aligners apply pressure to move teeth into the desired position, patients may feel tenderness or soreness, especially when switching to a new set of trays. This sensation is a sign that the teeth are adjusting and usually subsides after a few days.

Is demineralization a risk with Invisalign treatment?

Demineralization, or weakening of tooth enamel, is a potential risk for any orthodontic treatment, including Invisalign. To minimize this risk, maintain good oral hygiene, avoid sugary or acidic foods, and visit your dentist regularly for checkups and cleanings.


Nedwed, V., Miethke, R. R., Motivation, acceptance and problems of invisalign patients, J Orofac Orthop., 2005; DOI: 10.1007/s00056-005-0429-0. Available online at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15827703/

Alajmi S., Shaban A, Al-Azemi R. Comparison of short-term oral impacts experienced by patients treated with Invisalign or conventional fixed orthodontic appliances. Medical Principles and Practice. 2019. Available online at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31842018/

Ackerman M. Teleorthodontic treatment with clear aligners: An analysis of outcome in treatment supervised by general practitioners versus orthodontic specialists Journal of Dental Research and Reports. (2019). doi: 10.15761/JDRR.1000114. Available online at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341619741_Teleorthodontic_treatment_with_clear_aligners_An_analysis_of_outcome_in_treatment_supervised_by_general_practitioners_versus_orthodontic_specialists

Lagravere, M. O., Flores-Mir, C., The treatment effects of Invisalign orthodontic aligners: A systematic review; The Journal of the American Dental Association, 2005. DOI: 10.14219/jada.archive.2005.0117. Available online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0002817714624545

Iza Wojnarowski

Content contributor

Iza is a dedicated content contributor for Toothific. Having worn braces twice and currently using Invisalign to correct a mild overbite, Iza brings a unique perspective to her writing. She spends her time staying updated on the latest dental trends and treatments, ensuring her readers have the most current information for their dental care needs.

Notify of
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments

Related posts